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The most common symptoms of coronavirus (COVID-19) are recent onset of:
  • New continuous cough and/or
  • High temperature
  • loss or change to your sense of smell or taste  

For most people, coronavirus (COVID-19) will be a mild illness If you have coronavirus symptoms:
  • Do not go to a GP surgery, pharmacy or hospital
  • You do not need to contact 111 to tell them you're staying at home
  • Testing for coronavirus is not needed if you're staying at home
  • Plan ahead and ask others for help to ensure that you can successfully stay at home and consider what can be done for vulnerable people in the household
  • Ask your employer, friends and family to help you to get the things you need to stay at home
  • Wash your hands regularly for 20 seconds, each time using soap and water, or use hand sanitiser
  • If you feel you cannot cope with your symptoms at home, or your condition gets worse, or your symptoms do not get better after 7 days, then use the NHS 111 online coronavirus service. If you do not have internet access, call NHS 111. For a medical emergency dial 999
  • Visit NHS 111 Online for more information

Stay at Home
  • If you live alone and you have symptoms of coronavirus illness (COVID-19), however mild, stay at home for 7 days from when your symptoms started. (See ending isolation section below for more information)
  • If you live with others and you or one of them have symptoms of coronavirus, then all household members must stay at home and not leave the house for 14 days. The 14-day period starts from the day when the first person in the house became ill
  • It is likely that people living within a household will infect each other or be infected already. Staying at home for 14 days will greatly reduce the overall amount of infection the household could pass on to others in the community
  • For anyone in the household who starts displaying symptoms, they need to stay at home for 7 days from when the symptoms appeared, regardless of what day they are on in the original 14 day isolation period. (See ending isolation section below for more information
  • If you can, move any vulnerable individuals (such as the elderly and those with underlying health conditions) out of your home, to stay with friends or family for the duration of the home isolation period
  • If you cannot move vulnerable people out of your home, stay away from them as much as possible
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What we have to say about your health and well being
Feb 2016
Cardiovascular Disease by Katy Tehrani

Cardiovascular (CV) disease is a general term that refers to any disorder(s) regarding the heart or blood vessels.


The main causes of CV disease are:

  • by the build-up of fatty deposits (atheroma) within the inner layer of an artery resulting in the hardening and narrowing of the artery (atherosclerosis).
  • as a result of a blood clot (thrombosis)

Main Types of CV disease:

  • Coronary Heart disease - caused by narrowing of the heart blood vessels due to an atheroma, reducing the supply and flow of the oxygen rich blood to the heart.
  • Stroke – caused by a blockage in the blood supply to the brain due to a blood clot (thrombus) that forms over an atheroma.
  • Peripheral arterial disease – caused by a blockage in the arteries that supply blood to the limbs.
  • Aortic Disease- caused by a weakening of the aorta (largest blood vessel that supplies blood to the body) wall.

Risk factors

  • Smoking
  • Lack of physical activity
  • Stress
  • Age
  • Obesity - a waist measurement of above102 cm for men (92 cm for Asian men) and above 88 cm for women (78 cm for Asian women) is a risk factor.
  • Unhealthy and salty diet – above the daily recommended amount of 5g salt (one teaspoonful).
  • Alcohol – Above the recommended weekly guidelines of 14 units
  • High blood pressure
  • High cholesterol level.
  • High fat (triglyceride) blood level.
  • Diabetes.
  • Kidney diseases
  • Family history- if your father or brother was less than 55 years of age when diagnosed with CVD, or your mother or sister was less than 65 years of age when diagnosed with CVD
  • Ethnic background- South Asian communities have higher risk of Coronary Heart Disease.


Lifestyle factors that could reduce the risk of CV disease:

  • Smoking cessation
  • Choosing a healthy diet (having oily fish, fruits and vegetables in daily diet; low salt intake )
  • Physical activity-–at least 30 minutes of moderate physical activity five days per week.
  • Limit the units of alcohol per week and avoiding binge drinking
  • Regular monitoring of blood pressure and cholesterol level
  • Cardiovascular health risk assessment (for people aged over 40)- This is used by GPs and practice nurses to assess a patient’s cardiovascular health risk . A score is estimated based on the patient’s risk factors such as age, sex, smoking status, blood pressure, cholesterol level, etc. Analyzing the scores:
    • If the score is 20% or more-high risk, (2 in 10 chance for developing CV disease in the next 10 years)
    • If the score is 10-20% -moderate risk, (it means 1-2 in 10 is the chance for developing CV disease)
    • If the score is less than 10% -low risk, (it means less than a 1 in 10 chance for CV disease)


CV Disease can be managed effectively with a combination of lifestyle changes, medicines and, in some cases, surgery. Please refer to the references for more details.







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